Cognitivism Terms

 

  • LEARNINGThe acquisition of new information involving active internal cognitive processes.
  • SCHEMA- A group of similar ideas or thoughts. How we store and encode knowledge.
  • ASSIMILATION – When an individual interacts with an object or event that is consistent with its existing schema.
  • ACCOMMODATION- When an individual changes its existing schema to account for a new event .
  • SCRIPTS- Schema about an event.
  • LAW OF SIMILIARITY- People tend to perceive as a unit those things that are similar to one another.
  • LAW OF CLOSURE- People tend to automatically fill in the missing pieces to form a complete picture.
  • MEMORY- The ability to retrieve previously acquired knowledge.
  • STORAGE- Process of placing new information in to your memory.
  • ENCODING- Process of modifying information to help store it easily.
  • RETRIEVALThe process by which people recall previously stored information.
  • SENSORY REGISTRY- Place where information is held long enough for it to undergo preliminary cognitive processing.
  • SHORT TERM MEMORY- A storage mechanism that holds information for a short time after it is attended to.
  • WORKING MEMORYWhat short term memory later became referred to.
  • LONG TERM MEMORY- Storage mechanism that holds information for a long period of time has to do with Capacity, storage, duration, and control processes.
  • EPISODIC MEMORYOne’s own personal memory of life experiences.
  • SEMANTIC MEMORYOne’s general knowledge of the world, independent of his/her own experiences.
  • PROCEDURAL KNOWLEDGE- One’s knowledge of how to do things or how things work.
  • CONCEPTUAL KNOWLEDGE- One’s knowledge of why something happened.
  • DECLARATIVE KNOWLEDGE- Ones knowledge of how things are or used to be.
  • IMPLICIT KNOWLEDGE- Ones knowledge that can effect our behavior without being consciously recalled or explained.
  • EXPLICIT KNOWLEDGE One’s knowledge that can easily be recalled and explained.