Behaviorisms terms

 

  • STIMULUS Anything that can be used to elicit a response or behavior from an organism..
  • NEUTRAL STIUMULUS-A stimulus that does not have a noticeable affect on an organism on its own.
  • UNCONDITIONED STIMULUS- A stimulus that does produce a noticeable affect on an organism.
  • RESPONSE OR BEHAVIOR- Any reaction to a stimulus that can be observed.
  • UNCONDITIONED RESPONSE- Response to a stimulus that occurs naturally without being taught anything.
  • CONDITIONED RESPONSE- Response that takes place after the Neutral Stimulus has been conditioned to produce desired affect.
  • EQUIPOTENTIALITY- The behaviorist belief that all organisms learn in the same way.
  • EXTINCTION- When a conditioned response disappears after the conditioned stimulus is repeatedly presented without the unconditioned stimulus.
  • SPONTANEOUS RECOVERY- When a response remerges after a period of extinction is followed by a period of rest.
  • FREE OPERANT LEVEL- The baseline frequency of a behavior that happens naturally without a reinforcing stimulus.
  • TERMINAL BEHAVIORA concrete and observable response after a planned reinforcement program.
  • SUPERSTITIOUS BEHAVIORIs when an organism will reproduce whatever behavior came immediately before a random reinforcement.
  • REINFORCEMENTUsing stimuli to increase the frequency of a desired response after the response has occurred.
  • POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT- Presenting an organism with a stimulus in order to increase the frequency of a desired behavior.
  • NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT- Removing a stimulus in order to increase a desired response or behavior.
  • PUNISHMENTPresenting or removing a stimulus in order to decrease a desired response or behavior.
  • SHAPINGA technique of teaching used when the free operant level is low through reinforcing only those behaviors that resemble the terminal behavior closely and continuing to reinforce or shape them until the response becomes the terminal behavior.
  • CHAININGTeaching a sequence of behaviors using the shaping method. Starting with just the first response, before moving on to the second, and then the third.